- Head of the module: Dr. Riem Spielhaus
- Promotion: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [Federal Ministry of Education and Research]
- Duration: June 2015 – May 2016
The research project, led by Riem Spielhaus, focuses on methodical as well as scientific ethical and political challenges of empirical research on Salafism and Jihadism. These result from the fact that Salafism is a highly politicized and criminilized dynamic field, and Salafists and Jihadists themselves are often dismissive about scientific surveys. The present data are based mainly on estimates from security agencies and experiences of civil society actors in the prevention and de-radicalization work. The use of the data will lead to a series of questions that will be discussed by the project team. The aim is also to show the possibilities and limitations for future research in this field. The module Data Situation is part of the project Salafism in Germany led by the Leibniz Institute Hessian Foundation for Peace and Conflict Research.
Website of the whole project
Publications from the project
- Brauchen wir eigentlich wirklich mehr Forschung zum Salafismus? Und wenn ja: welche? [Do we need more research about salafism? And, if so, what kind of research?] blog article by Riem Spielhaus, sicherheitspolitik-blog (21/01/2016).
- Ein Blick über den Zaun: Salafismus in den Niederlanden, blog article by Klaus Hummel, sicherheitspolitik-blog (08/12/2016).
Synopsis (with a film and the most important results, including recommendations)
Riem Spielhaus in: Salafismus und Jihadismus in Deutschland. Ursachen, Dynamiken und Handlungsempfehlungen, edited by Biene, Janusz/Daase, Christopher/Junk, Julian/Müller, Harald. Publication date: September 2016
Further literature: Riem Spielhaus (2015): “Salafismus, Jihadismus und Islamismus in Deutschland.” Uwe Backes, Alexander Gallus, and Eckhard Jesse (ed.)/Jahrbuch Extremismus & Demokratie/(E & D) 27, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, 247–269.
- Head: Prof. Dr. Mathias Rohe
- Contracting authority: Senatsverwaltung für Justiz und Verbraucherschutz, Berlin
- Duration: January – December 2015
- Staff member: Dr. Mahmoud Jaraba
The Muslim Communities of Berlin with their different ethnical backgrounds build the focus of the research project. It is duly narrowed on questions of family and criminal law. Phenomenon’s of parallel justice can indeed be found in other law sectors, e.g. in contract or tort law. However, they mostly display connections to aspects that are relevant to family or criminal law. The general framework of the project acquired a focus on exemplary observations of specific cultural-ethnic-religious milieus. However, the phenomenon of parallel justice does not end there. It can typically be found in structures of organized crime with domestic and foreign background as well as in milieus with few social contacts to the State and Civil Society, milieus that generally do not identify with those institutions or the ones that – due to their cultural background – generally want to solve conflicts internally.
It is important to note that parallel justice is by no means typical for any ethnic, cultural or religiously defined demographic group. The empirical results of the research project are based on 93 interviews with members of cultural (mostly Arabic-Kurdish families and clans) as well as Islamic-religious milieus and organisations with different ethnic and cultural-religious backgrounds as well as on expert interviews with representatives from police, prosecution, jurisprudence, other forms of administration, secular NGOs and science.
- Head: Dr. Riem Spielhaus
- Promotion: Beauftragter des Berliner Senats für Kirchen, Religions- und Weltanschauungsgemeinschaften [Representative of the Berlin Senate for Churches, Religious and World View Communities]
- Duration: 2013 – 2015
- Associate: Nina Mühe
- Photographic concept: Julius Matuschik
With a survey designed to cover the majority of mosques and Islamic prayer rooms in Berlin, the results of previous surveys on Muslim prayer rooms in Berlin from 1996/97 and 2005/6 will be updated and analyzed in consideration of the social and political changes in Berlin. These surveys are supplemented by interviews and analysis of individual projects and initiatives of Muslims in the city. On this basis, the development of a comprehensive publication on Muslim life in Berlin will take place. In addition to the survey results presented in an introduction and content articles by the two editors Nina Mühe and Riem Spielhaus, 5-6 other authors will be invited to write on specific topics. The results of the surveys will be complemented by visual materials (graphics, tables, charts, etc.) and a photographic concept.
The study is available in full length online.
- Head: Dr. Baudouin Dupret (CNRS/Centre Jacques Berque, Rabat, Morocco), Dr. Jörn Thielmann (EZIRE)
- Promotion: Agence nationale de la recherche ANR & Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG
The application was promoted by the Bayerisch-Französische Hochschulzentrum BFHZ.
- Duration: 2011 – 2013 [extended until January 2016]
- Staff member: Ass. iur. Martin Herzog, Stephanie Müssig M.A., Dr. Ursula Günther (October 2011 – September 2014)
The PROMETEE program conducts – together with our partner, the Centre Jacques Berque, CJB, in Rabat, Morocco – an anthropological study of the law in societies that are wholly or partly Muslim. It seeks first to question the relationship between law and Islam while re-specifying the answer that is given to it. It starts from the lack of attention given to the question of legal practices. To make up this deficit, it proposes to substitute for the anthropology of Islamic law an anthropology of legal practices of Muslims in German speaking Europe and in Muslim countries formerly colonized by France. It targets an essential part of the law, i.e. property, the contract which relates to it, and its transmission. Methodologically, it combines an ethnography of legal, linguistic, and interactional practices in Muslim contexts.
The Program pursues a double objective. On one hand, it aims at developing a descriptive, non-ideological theory of the plural nature of law, hereby making substantial progress in the social sciences of law. It treats the question of law starting from the practices, the language and the texts; and also wants to show the inextricably dependent character of economic and legal decisions towards which the people involved orient themselves, i.e., to refute the idea of an anthropology of law separated from economic considerations (and conversely).
On the other hand, it “de-essentializes” and “de-culturalizes” the references which are made to Islam. It is thus building and carrying out a praxiological anthropology of property. The reference to the authority of Islam is probably occasional and, when it appears, is part of the banality and routine of carrying out legal practice. Does this mean that there is no specifically Islamic authority in legal rules? We would rather re-specify the question: instead of wondering what is the Islamic authority of legal rules, we will try to describe, in context and action, the modes of use and reference to legal rules and their production. And eventually (only at the end of the enquiry), we might be able to assess what is specifically Islamic.
Untersuchung zur Rolle islamischer Normen im Alltag von Muslimen
Do Islamic commandments play a role when Muslims make decisions on dealing with their property in everyday life? Scientific studies suggest that some Islamic commandments are given more attention than others. EZIRE staff member Stephanie Müssig has found in her systematic review that Muslims follow, in particular, Islamic norms for consumption. Islamic norms dealing with capital goods tend to play a subordinate role in the daily lives of Muslims. In analyzing 20 research papers on the role of Islamic consumption and production commandments in everyday life of Muslims, Stephanie Müssig comes to the following conclusion: Islamic norms that regulate the use of property in relation to consumption influence attitudes and decisions of Muslims in their daily life. This concerns for example the consumption of halal slaughtered meat or the consumption of alcohol, which is forbidden in Islam, but also consumer decisions in general. By contrast, Islamic norms that regulate the use of capital goods are given less significance. Thus, Islamic norms hardly play a role when Muslims make investment decisions or when it comes to their corporate governance. For the systematic review, Stephanie Müssig has searched six major electronic journal databases on Social Sciences and Islamic Studies by research until August 2013 which deal empirically with the importance of Islamic norms regarding consumption and production issues of Muslims in Western Europe. The author was able to identify 20 relevant research papers of which she evaluated the results. The systematic review is published in the “Journal of Muslims in Europe” under the title “Muslims’ Day-to-Day Handling of Property and the Adherence to Islamic Norms. A Systematic Review of Studies for Western Europe” appeared.
Treatise on bridal dowry (mahr) from the perspective of different disciplines
EZIRE-employees Ursula Günther, Martin Herzog and Stephanie Müssig focused on the Islamic bridal dowry (mahr) from an Islamic Studies, legal and sociological perspective. The treatise is published under the title “Researching Mahr in Germany: A Multidisciplinary Approach” published in the magazine “Review of Middle East Studies”.
Understanding Property in Moslem Transitional Environments: The French-German PROMETEE research project
Dupret, Badouin/Thielmann, Jörn, in: GAIR-Mitteilungen 2013, Vol. 5., p. 62-69.
Project-homepage of our French partner Centre Jacques Berque: PROMETEE
- Head: Dr. Ursula Klimiont, Bildungszentrum Nürnberg [Education Centre, Nuremberg]
- Duration: 2012 – 2014
The project focused on religious management staff, volunteers and board members of interreligious communities that play an important role in spiritual and relevant day to day life issues and situations. They provide significant consulting work and practical assistance on a daily basis. In this training program, the religious management staff and active volunteers should be trained as multipliers and supported in their unique bridging function so they can positively influence the integration process of their community members.
Publications: A handout can be ordered from the project management.
Visit the Website.
- Promotion: European Commission Directorate General Research – Unit L Science, Economy and Society (Seventh Framework Programme)
- Duration: 2010 – 2012 [extended until May 2013]
The RELIGARE project is a three-year European research project funded by the European Commission Directorate General Research – Unit L Science, Economy and Society. It comprises 13 universities and research centres from across the European Union and Turkey. RELIGARE is about religions, belonging, beliefs and secularism. It examines the current realities in Europe, including the legal rules protecting or limiting (constraining) the experiences of religious or other belief-based communities. Where the practices of communities or individuals do not conform to State law requirements, or where communities turn to their own legal regimes or tribunals, the reasons behind these developments need to be understood.